Most people undoubtedly know of Harry Bridges, the legendary founding
president of the International Longshore and Warehouse Union. But most
people undoubtedly do not know of Jimmy Herman, his successor, who died in
1999 after a remarkable career of his own.
Many leaders preach "solidarity," but few practiced it to a greater degree -- or with greater success - than
Herman. The ILWU and unions generally were just some of the many beneficiaries of his unshakable belief in the union's credo
that "an injury to one is an injury to all."
He not only led the way to the forging of strong new alliances within the labor movement. He also led the ILWU's members
and others into solidarity with masses of needy and mistreated people in the United States and abroad. That brought crucial
aid and comfort to America's oppressed farm workers; to dissidents opposing brutal authoritarian regimes in Central America,
Asia, Africa and elsewhere; to those struggling to overcome drug abuse, and to many others.
Herman, elected in l977 to succeed Bridges, was a short, stocky, physically unremarkable man with little formal education
beyond elementary school. But he was a spellbinding orator and brilliant self-educated thinker and tactician. His fierce commitment
to the ordinary people who did the work of the world, his outspoken contempt for those who exploited them, his compassion
for the underprivileged, his absolute refusal to tolerate injustice was obvious to anyone within range of his exceptionally
"He was a great orator because what he said came from his heart," noted Executive Secretary-Treasurer Art Pulaski
of the AFL-CIO's California Labor Federation.
Herman was left-wing and proud of it. "A lot of people don't like that label," he once said, "but to me
it means working for working people and the poor. It means you have to embrace the struggle to change the conditions under
which you live."
Succeeding the celebrated Bridges was a formidable task, but Herman quickly proved equal to it, thanks in part to his
experience during the previous 16 years as a popular and extremely active leader of ILWU Local 34 in San Francisco. He held
the ILWU presidency for the next 14 years, until reaching the union's mandatory retirement age of 65 in 1991.
Like Bridges, Herman insisted that rank-and-file members retain their tight control over the union, perhaps the nation's
most democratic, and continue exercising the militancy that helped them win steady improvements in pay, benefits and working
Herman's skill in negotiating contracts with employers also had much to do with the improvements - and they were considerable.
During his time in office, basic pay of longshoremen, for instance, rose from $75 to $168 a day.
It was during Herman's presidency, too, that the Inland Boatmen's Union, whose members operate tugs, barges, passenger
ferries and other vessels on the West Coast, affiliated with the ILWU. That gave important new muscle to both organizations.
The ILWU and unions representing lumber workers and others in the forest products industry were similarly strengthened by
joining together in a federation headed by Herman.
Even before he became president, Herman led ad hoc committees of unionists formed as support groups for striking San Francisco
Bay Area unions. He was also a key figure in garnering support for the fledgling United Farm Workers union.
As ILWU president, Herman's most important act of union solidarity was leading the organization into the AFL-CIO.
"Affiliation is a momentous event in our history," Herman declared. "It puts all of us where we belong
- together, in a united labor movement .... All of us need all the mutual help we can get."
With Herman as president, as with Bridges before him, longshoremen often refused to handle cargo going to or coming from
nations controlled by oppressive regimes. Their boycotts were waged despite employer threats to levy heavy fines on the ILWU
and individual members, whose unflinching stands ultimately forced the bosses to back off.
Herman also was a major supporter of the Delancey Street Foundation in San Francisco, one of the country's most successful
drug rehabilitation programs. Foundation President Mimi Silbert recalled that Herman, a member of the organization's board
of directors, visited its live-in facility regularly "to have coffee with the residents, sitting with them, talking,
getting them interested in issues outside themselves, literally elevating their knowledge and their faith in themselves."
He was a highly influential member of the city's Port Commission and played an important role as well in helping city
officials settle labor-management disputes that threatened vital municipal services and in helping them ease serious racial
tensions that arose during the 1960s.
To Jimmy Herman, "Solidarity Forever" obviously was much more than a song.
Copyright © Dick Meister